Acidification is the build-up of excess acids into soils, waters, and air.
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AEO - EU Authorised Economic Operator
An AEO is defined as: “a party involved in the international movement of goods in whatever function that has been approved by or on behalf of a national Customs administration as complying with WCO or equivalent supply chain security standards. Authorised Economic Operators include inter alia manufacturers, importers, exporters, brokers, carriers, consolidators, intermediaries, ports, airports, terminal operators, integrated operators, warehouses and distributors”
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AIS: Automatic Identification System
Regulation 19 of the IMO SOLAS Chapter V - Carriage requirements for ship borne navigational systems and equipment - sets out navigational equipment to be carried on board ships, according to ship type. In 2000, the IMO adopted a new requirement (as part of a revised new chapter V) for ships to carry automatic identification systems (AISs) capable of providing information about the ship to other ships and to coastal authorities automatically.
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Allowance (or permit)
Permission to emit one credit of the gas within a specified time 5. Cap: the maximum allowable emissions over a regulated area and within a specified time, often tautological with the regulated (capped) area.
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Anglo Saxon Port Model
The Anglo-Saxon model sees the port simply as a commercial activity. Management control of the port is a private undertaking with the primary objective to earn profits
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ARPA: Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
A navigator’s assessment of collision risk depends upon his/her knowledge about own ship’s motion and other ships’ motion. The IMO have defined three levels of radar plotting and target tracking aid: 1. Electronic Tracking Aid (ETA) - To be incorporated in Radar equipment on ships of 300 gt. and over, but less than 500 gt. 2. Automatic Tracking Aid (ATA) - To be incorporated in Radar equipment on ships of 500 gt. and over (replacing the requirement for an EPA). On ships of 3000 gt. and over the second radar must also be equipped with an ATA. The two ATAs must be functionally independent of each other. 3. Automatic Radar Tracking Aid (ARPA) - To be incorporated in one radar equipment on ships of 10000 gt. and over. The second unit must incorporate ATA if not ARPA.
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Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
ASEAN is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
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Ballast water
The water which is stowed in the ballast tanks to ensure stability and manouverability for the propeller, the steering trim and the draft
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Ballast water management
(on-board) activities aiming to limit environmental effects from ballast water
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Banking (emission trading)
The possibility to carry over unsold emission reduction credits from one period to another.
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A chemical such as bleach that kills organisms during ballast water management.
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Cap (emission trading)
The maximum allowable emissions over a regulated area and within a specified time, often tautological with the regulated (capped) area.
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Carbon credit
A generic term to assign a value to a reduction or offset of greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon credit is usually equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e). A carbon credit can be used by a business or individual to reduce their carbon footprint by investing in an activity that has reduced or sequestered greenhouse gases at another site.
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Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The most abundant of the greenhouse gases, produced as a by-product of oil and gas production, burning fossil fuels and biomass. All animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms also produce CO2. It has a global warming potential of 1.
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CBM Coordinated Border Management
CBM, also referred to as Integrated Border Management are expressions used with different meanings depending on the organisations using them, e.g. DG HOME, FRONTEX, WCO, etc. the proposed WCO definition is: Coordinated Border Management "This concept entails coordination and cooperation among all the relevant authorities and agencies involved in border security and regulatory requirements that apply to passengers, goods and conveyances that are moved across borders"
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Chartering is the arrangement made between a ship owner and a cargo owner for the transportation of goods by means of one or more ships. The goods are transported from the shipper (sender) to the receiver. In order to make this market more flexible as well as cost and time efficient, a brokerage network is in place. By means of brokerage, transportation agreements are reached in a more sophisticated manner.
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China Development Bank
CDB has always been a strong supporter of the State's macroeconomic policy and has assumed an active role in raising and channelling funds to alleviate the bottleneck restraints to the development of the economy and society. It funds huge infrastructure projects in China and the region.
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CO2 sequestration
‘CO2 sequestration is the capture and permanent storage in geological formations of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere’ (IMO)
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Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
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A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the Earth's magnetic poles. Compass technologies are an essential part of the navigation equipment fitted on maritime vessels and it is a requirement laid down by the IMO that all ships over 150 gross tonnes carry approved compass equipment (see Section 5.2). Over the years several forms of compasses have been developed using different technologies. Those currently fitted include: • Magnetic Compass • Electromagnetic Compass • Gyro Compass - (mechanical and fibreoptic) • Satellite
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Dead zone
An area that is hypooxic due to eutrophication. There, oxygene is depleted due to excessive nurishment of algae, caused by chemical nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorous). Agriculture is a main polluter but shipping emissions are rich in nitrogen oxides.
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A Decision (defined in Article 249/EC) is one of the three binding instruments provided by secondary EU legislation. A decision is a law which is not of general application, but only applies to its particular addressee of the decision.
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Directorate General Transport and Energy - Brussels. This Directorate manages work in Energy and Transport fields. Given the close links between these two areas, the Commission aims to ensure that its work across them takes advantage of all possible synergies.
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Diesel Engines
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that operates using the diesel cycle with highest thermal efficiency approaching 60%; manufactured in two stroke (slow speed) and four stroke (medium or high speed) versions
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A directive is a legislative act of the European Union. They have a specific regulatory role, applicable only to the member state to whom they are addressed. Once adopted, they give member states a timetable for the implementation of the intended outcome. In the transport sector, there are various Directives.
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Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation. (EACI) was set up to manage on behalf of the EC: Intelligent Energy – Europe; Enterprise Europe Network; Marco Polo and Eco-innovation.
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EBRD - European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
The EBRD provides project financing for banks, industries and businesses in countries from central Europe to central Asia.Investing primarily in private sector clients whose needs cannot be fully met by the market, the Bank promotes entrepreneurship and fosters transition towards open and democratic market economies.
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The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS)is a ship-borne real-time electronic navigational system that is capable of integrating navigational positioning system information and ship sensors with Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) to provide a display of ship's position with respect to land, charted objects, aids-to-navigation andunseen hazards.It is capable of providing anti-grounding and anti-collision warnings as well as route planning and monitoring. It is approved by the IMO and must meet the minimum level of reliability and functionality specified in IMO Resolution A.817(19, MSC.64(67) and MSC.86(70).
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Ecobonus Initiative
Ecobonus is an initiative of the Italian Government which provides economic reimbursement for hauliers that use sea transport as part of their journey.
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e-Customs - is aimed at providing a paperless environment for customs and trade by making Member States' electronic customs systems compatible with each other and creating a single, shared computer portal.
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According to EU Freight Logistics Action Plan, "e-freight", denotes the vision of a paper-free, electronic flow of information associating the physical flow of goods with a paperless trail built by ICT. It includes the ability to track and trace freight along its journey across transport modes and to automate the exchange of information for regulatory or commercial purposes.
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EIB - European Investment Bank
The European Investment Bank was created by the Treaty of Rome in 1958 as the long-term lending bank of the European Union. The task of the Bank is to contribute towards the integration, balanced development and economic and social cohesion of the EU Member States. The EIB raises substantial volumes of funds on the capital markets which it lends on favourable terms to projects furthering EU policy objectives.
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The e-Maritime initiative is aimed at supporting the development of European capabilities, strategies and policies facilitating the adoption of upgraded “e-Maritime” solutions in support of an efficient and sustainable waterborne transport system fully integrated in the overall European transport system.
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Emission reduction credit
A tradable emission unit deriving from reducing further than the requirement
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e-Navigation is an International Maritime Organisation (IMO) led concept based on the harmonisation of marine navigation systems and supporting shore services driven by user needs.e-Navigation, as defined by the IMO (and IALA and other organisations) is as follows: ‘e-Navigation is the harmonised collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth to berth navigation and related services, for safety and security at sea and to protect the marine environment.’
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European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme
In January 2005 the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) commenced operation as the largest multi-country, multi-sector Greenhouse Gas emission trading scheme world-wide. The scheme is based on Directive 2003/87/EC, which entered into force on 25 October 2003.
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It means excessive nurishment in an ecosystem (from Greek ευ and τροφή, nurishment). At sea, it is caused by surplus nitrogen and phosphorus depositions and is responsible for a line of problems, such as excessive growth of plankton algae and changes in species composition.
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EXIOPOL (2007)
EXIOPOL is an Integrated Project aimed to develop a New Environmental Accounting Framework Using Externality Data and Input-Output Tools for Policy Analysis
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Externality of an economic transaction is an impact on a party that is not directly involved in the transaction. In transport, externalities associated with environmental impact are becoming important in comparing different modes of transport.
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Flag State
A vessel is regulated by the flag state not the country of ownership. The Flag State imposes law and regulation on their seafaring community. Such regulations have a serious influence on the living and working conditions at sea - recruitment issues, conditions of employment, and health and social security.
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A Fleet contains a number of Ships of different types (e.g. tankers, bulk-carriers) and can be subdivided according to geographical/topological criteria (Mediterranean fleet, Atlantic fleet etc.). A ship can be a member of several fleets.
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Fleet Management
Fleet management denotes the management of differenbt types of ships
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freight-forwarding services
Freight Forwarding and Logistic Services" means services of any kind relating to the carriage (performed by single mode or multimodal transport means), consolidation, storage, handling, packing or distribution of the Goods as well as ancillary and advisory services in connection therewith, including but not limited to customs and fiscal matters, declaring the Goods for official purposes, procuring insurance of the Goods and collecting or procuring payment or documents relating to the Goods. by CLECAT & FIATA
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FTSE4Good Index Series
The FTSE4Good Index Series has been designed to measure the performance of companies that meet globally recognised corporate responsibility standards, and to facilitate investment in those companies.
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General Average
This is the procedure whereby the commercial parties in a shipping venture proportionally share the financial consequences and any losses resulting from a voluntary sacrifice of part of the ship or cargo to save the whole in an emergency.
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GMDSS: Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GMDSS is an automated ship to shore distess alerting system that relies on satellite and advanced terrestrial communications links.The system also provides some limited ship to ship communications capabilities, as well as specific Search and Rescue activities such as emergency position indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs) and search and rescue transponders (SARTs)
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GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. GNSS allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line-of-sight by radio from satellites. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can also be used to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific experiments.
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Governance encompasses the framework of rules, relationships, systems and processes within, and by which fiduciary authority is exercised between the industry and the regulator
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Greenhouse gases (GHG)
Gases on the earth’s atmosphere which absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. The Kyoto Protocol lists six major greenhouse gases, which vary in their relative warming effect. The six gases are: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (perfluorocarbons) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
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Grey water and Black water ( from ships)
It is the wastewater from galleys, wash basins shower cabinets etc. Back water is the waste water from toilets.
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Ground level ozone
It is the primary constituent of smog and is primarily formed when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds react in the presence of hot weather and sunlight. It is responsible for health problems and damage to agricultural crops and buildings.
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Hazardous waste
Radioactive, explosive, corrosive, toxic, clinical waste, heavy metals etc as define in the Basel Convention.
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HEATCO (2006)
Unit Cost Figures for Externalities - HEATCO's primary objective was the development of harmonised guidelines for project assessment on EU level. Also it had a number of further objectives: stated-preference surveys were carried out in 6 countries to help fill the most significant gaps in monetary values and add knowledge on the issue of transferability and comparability of values between countries. The proposed harmonised guidelines were applied to 4 TEN transport infrastructure projects to illustrate applicability of the guidelines and the differences to existing CBA evaluations.
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Hot air
Excessive allowances often due to loss of industrial output or de-industrialization.
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Hot spot
Localised high emissions due to trading and/or due to a geographical swift to where emissions are physically reduced.
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IBS: Integrated Bridge System
The IMO defines an Integrated Bridge System (IBS) as a combination of systems which are interconnected in order to allow centralised access to sensor information or command/control from work stations, with the aim of increasing safe and efficient ship’s management by suitably qualified personnel.Performance standards for integrated bridge systems were adopted by IMO in 1996
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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 185 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. The IMF monitors the world's economies, lends to members in economic difficulty, and provides technical assistance.
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IMPACT (2007)
Internalisation Measures and Policies for All External costs of Transport - the main recommendation from IMPACT is an amendment of the Eurovignet Directive on infrastructure charging for heavy goods vehicles. This Directive turns out to be a major obstacle for charging transport users for the external cost. The European Commission has followed this recommendation by presenting an amendment to the Directive at 8 July 2008. Together with the legislative proposal, the European Commission presented a strategy for internalisation the external cost of all transport modes. Also this strategy is partly based on the results of IMPACT.
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Indicator data
These are values used in indicators. Data is collected from various statistical sources.
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Indicator framework
This a conceptual structure linking indicators to a theory or planning process. In Europe, indicator framework is usually linked to policy objectives to facilitate the decision-making process.
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Indicator set
It is a group of indicators selected to measure progress. The set may represent different aspects of the economic development of an industry. For example, the sustainable indicator set also takes the social and environmental issues into consideration.
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Indicator type
This is the nature of data used by indicator. It could be qualitative or quantitative. In accordance with the nature of data, indicators are classified into different groups.
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Initial clean-up
The first stage of cleaning an oil spill at sea. The aim is to remove large accumulations of pollutant and heavily polluted materials as quickly as possible in order to limit expansion of the pollution and ecological impact.
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INS: Integrated Navigation System
Integrated Navigation Systems are an integral part of an Integrated Bridge System. The purpose of the Integrated Navigation System (INS) is to provide 'added value' to the functions and information needed by the officer on watch to plan, monitor or control the progress of the ship. The INS supports safety of navigation by evaluating inputs from several independent and different sensors, combining them to provide information giving timely warnings of potential dangers and degradation of integrity of this information. Integrity monitoring is an intrinsic function of the INS.
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Intermodal Loading Units
Intermodal Loading Units (ILU), as the name suggests, are units by which goods can be moved between the various transport modes. They include containers, swap bodies and other purpose-build units.
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International Maritime Organization (IMO)
IMO is a specialised agency of the United Nations with 169 Member States and three Associate Members, based in the United Kingdom with around 300 international staff. Its committees and sub-committees are the focus for the technical work to update existing legislation or develop and adopt new regulations.
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International Safety Management (ISM) Code
The ISM Code provides an International standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. The purpose of ISM Code is: to ensure Safety at Sea: to prevent human injury or loss of life: to avoid damage to the environment and to the ship.
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International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code
International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, made mandatory under amendments to SOLAS and adopted in 2002. This is a comprehensive security regime for international shipping.
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ISO container dimensions and payloads
Containers are available in common standard lengths of 20-ft (6.1 m), 40-ft (12.2 m), 45-ft (13.7 m), 48-ft (14.6 m), and 53-ft (16.2 m). United States domestic standard containers are generally 48-ft and 53-ft (rail and truck). Container capacity is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU, or sometimes teu).
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The International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code was adopted by IMO in December of 2002, and included in Chapter XI-2 of the Safety of Life at Sea Convention (SOLAS). The ISPS Code is a comprehensive set of mandatory measures to enhance the security of international shipping, port facilities and operations
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Japan Bank for International Cooperation is an international wing of Japan Finance Corporation. It is to contribute to the sound development of the Japanese and international economy by conducting finance operations in the following areas: 1) promoting overseas development of strategically important natural resources to Japan; 2) improving the international competitiveness of Japanese industries; 3) responding to disruptions in financial order in the international economy.
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Jones Act:
Certain provisions of the US Merchant Marine Act of 1920, also known as Jones Act, require that any vessel operating between two US ports must be US-built, US-owned, and manned by US citizens, significantly increases the capital and the operating costs for any short sea operation.
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Keiretsu organisation
It is a business group of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings. All Japanese corporations affiliated with hundreds of other companies (keiretsu type) have established vertically integrated structures and covered areas such as financial services, electronics, natural resources, chemicals, transportation and logistics, trading, etc. They invest in transport infrastructure/services in order to satisfy their clients with the best customer service.
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Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
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LGTT is the acronym for Loan Guarantee Instrument for Trans-European Transport Network Projects, an innovative financial instrument set up and developed jointly by the European Commission and the European Investment Bank (EIB) which aims at facilitating a larger participation of the private sector involvement in the financing of Trans-European Transport Network infrastructure (“TEN-T”).
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LORAN: LOng Range Aid to Navigation
LORAN is a long range terrestrial radio navigation system that can be used for air, land and sae navigation.LORAN-C is the latest operational version and operates within the band 90-110KHz over a range of up to 1,299nm providing a typical positional accuracy of 0.25nm.
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LRIT: Long Range Identification and Tracking
The Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) of ships was established as an international system on 19 May 2006 by the IMO as resolution MSC.202(81). This resolution amends chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), regulation 19-1 and binds all governments which have contracted to the IMO. The LRIT regulation will apply to the following ship types engaged on international voyages: All passenger ships including high speed craft, Cargo ships, including high speed craft of 300 gross tonnage and above, and Mobile offshore drilling units. These ships must automatically report their position to the their Flag Administration at least 4 times a day. Other contracting governments may request information about vessels in which they have a legitimate interest under the regulation. The automatic system consists of the shipborne LRIT information transmitting equipment, Communications Service Providers (CSPs), Application Service Providers (ASPs), LRIT Data Centres, the LRIT Data Distribution Plan and the International LRIT Data Exchange. Certain aspects of the performance of the LRIT system are reviewed or audited by the LRIT Coordinator acting on behalf of the IMO and its Contracting Governments. For short range tracking system on ships, more frequent transmission can be achieved by AIS (Automatic Identification System) for VHF Radio range.
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Marine debris
‘Any man-made object discarded, disposed of, or abandoned that enters the coastal or marine environment. It may enter directly from a ship, or indirectly when washed out to sea via rivers, streams and storm drains’
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Maritime Assistance Services (MAS)
IMO Resolution A.950(23) Maritime Assistance Services (MAS) sets out the recommendations for MAS, the principal purposes of which are to receive the various reports, consultations and notifications required in a number of IMO instruments; monitoring a ship's situation if such a report indicates that an incident may give rise to a situation whereby the ship may be in need of assistance; serving as the point of contact if the ship's situation is not a distress situation but nevertheless requires exchanges of information between the ship and the coastal State, and for serving as the point of contact between those involved in a marine salvage operation undertaken by private facilities if the coastal State considers that it should monitor all phases of the operation.
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MARPOL 73/78
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78). This covers accidental and operational oil pollution and pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution.
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Motorways of the Sea
Motorways of the Sea are defined in EC communications as existing or new sea-based transport services that are integrated in door-to-door logistic chains and concentrate flows of freight on viable, regular, frequent, high-quality and reliable Short Sea Shipping links. The deployment of the Motorways of the Sea network should absorb a significant part of the expected increase in road freight traffic, improve the accessibility of peripheral and island regions and states and reduce road congestion.
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Non-oxidizing biocide
Biocides can also be lethal to organisms carried in the ballast water through various chemical means.
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Nordic Investment Bank
NIB finances projects that strenghten competitiveness and enhance the environment in the Nordic and Baltic countries.
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Normalised Trades
Normalised Trades can be described as the trade flows that may be expected between a reference state and its proximate states on the basis of the GDPs of the proximate states and the total trade flows from the reference state. The normalised trades can be used to estimate trade potentials and potential trade gaps.
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Emissions of nitrogen oxides are produced during combustion. They contribute to a number of problems such as, human health eutrophication and ground level ozone.
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It is a desirable change defined in a policy document or in a planning process. Objectives and instruments are conceptually distinct and both are integral to having a policy. Transport authorities are motivated by different objectives - for example, improving transport traffic, reducing noise or accidents.
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Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC)
The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC), 1990 sets out the requirement to establish measures for dealing with pollution incidents, either nationally or in co-operation with other countries.
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Oily bilge water
that collects in the bilge of the ship containing oil and chemicals.
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Open Register
Open register can be defined as any flag state which does not require a substantial fleet for its own commercial purposes, but offers a legal base in return for fees from non-nationals to register tonnage which they own or control. There is the additional inducement of limiting the level of nationalised regulation, both fiscal and operational, particularly the terms and conditions of employment of non-national seafarers.
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Operational discharge
At sea, the release of waste waters containing a certain quantity of hydrocarbons. The release is linked to the routine activity of a vessel
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Oxidizing agent
Chemicals that destroy the cell membrane through oxidization. A molecule that is electron deficient removes an electron from another molecule in this reaction. The process of rusting is an oxidation reaction.
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Particulate Matter PM
Fine particles as a by-product of combustion. The smaller they are, the more penetrating.
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Patty and Patch
‘Patty: a deposit of pollution roughly between 10 cm and 1 m in diameter. In the classification of pollution, it is considered smaller than a patch but larger than a tar ball’ (Black Tides)
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Place of Refuge
This is a place where a vessel in need of assistance can be assisted to take action to enable it to stabilize its condition and reduce hazards to navigation, and to protect human life and the environment.
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Policy actions (Action programmes)
These are desirable actions defined in a policy document. Usually actions are described in detail. DG TREN action programmes cover planned policy actions in all transport modes.
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Policy objective
It is a desirable change defined in a policy document. Usually policy objectives are maximised via implementation of different schemes - for example, reducing congestion as a policy objective could be achieved throught improving alternative transport modes.
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Pollution response
The procedure to deal with any emergency at sea that causes pollution, or threatens to cause pollution as a result of shipping or offshore operations.
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Port Facility
port area/location (comprising installations, equipment, buildings, warehouses, storage depots, company premises etc.) where interaction between vessel and port takes place and is designated by the competent authority as facility for the purposes of the ISPS code.
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Port facility security assessment (PFSA)
PFSA is a risk assessment to determine threats specific to a port facility and the surrounding waters and infrastructure
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Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO)
The PFSO is appointed by the organization operating a port facility and responsible for implementing and maintaining the PFSP
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Port Facility Security Plan (PFSP)
A plan containing the measures adopted to address the PFSA and the provisions of the ISPS Code at three scalable levels
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Port State Control
Port State Control (PSC) is the inspection of foreign ships in other national ports by PSC officers (inspectors) for the purpose of verifying that the competency of the master and officers onboard, the condition of a ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of international conventions and that the vessel is manned and operated in compliance with applicable international law.
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PPI Database
Private Participation in Infrastructure projects Database is a joint project of the World Bank's Infrastructure Economics and Finance Department and the Public-private Infrastructure Advisory Facility. Their site currently provides information on more than 4,100 infrastructure projects dating from 1984 to 2007. It contains over 30 fields per project record, including country, financial closure year, infrastructure services provided, type of private participation, technology, capacity, project location, contract duration, private sponsors, and development bank support.
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PPU: Portable Pilot Unit
A Portable Pilot Unit (PPU), which is based on a laptop computer, can be described as a portable unit that a pilot brings onboard a vessel to use as a decision-support tool for navigating in confined waters. A PPU helps the pilot to safely navigate into and out of harbours and other areas where obstacles could impede the progress of the vessel. A PPU provides the pilot with accurate, real-time, reliable navigational information to make critical decisions and to provide early detection of variations from the planned route and to take corrective action quickly.
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Provision of public goods
The literature on public-private partnerships develops frameworks of how to involve the private sector in the provision of public goods. In practice, the private investments play a significant role for providing public goods. The EU Investment process demonstrates clearly this provision of public goods in the transport sector.
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Public-private partnership
Public-private partnership within the EU is a way for mutual benefits in the transport sector. Private participation contributes to the effective use of resources. Similarly, public guarantees on private initiatives improve the capacity of companies to attract long-term capital investments. It supports long-term economically advantageous infrastructure projects that could not be done purely by the commercial companies. Also it improves the capacity to develop new financing structures and technological initiatives.
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Radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) with target plotting is accepted by mariners as the primary tool for collision avoidance and a radar is a legal necessity for the safe navigation of vessels of 300gt and above. The IMO definition of the purpose of a ship’s radar is “to assist in the safe navigation and in avoiding collision by providing an indication, in relation to own ship, of the position of other surface craft, obstructions, hazards, navigation objects and shoreline’’.
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Rational Allocation of Resources
The rational allocation of resources is an important component of the distribution process of public funds. To acquire it, infrastructure projects are usually expected to meet economic and environmental criteria of viability . Public funds are allocated through grants or financial aids for a specific project. Often two or more agents contribute to the same project for different objectives. Sometimes decision-makers have to match multiple objectives to ensure a rational allocation. In order to find a solution to this difficulty, the public authorities usually search for project selection criteria that will optimise only the public policy objective functions.
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A regulation is a legislative act of the EU. They have broader meaning and are applicable in all member states. They are the most direct form of EU law. Once they are passed, they have binding legal force throughout every Member State.
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The roll-on/roll-off ship (RoRo) is as a passenger/car ferry used particularly on short-sea routes. As the name of the system implies, cars and lorries can drive straight on to a ro-ro ship at one port and off at the port on the other side of the sea within a few minutes of the ship docking. This is in contrast to lo-lo (lift on-lift off) vessels which use a crane to load and unload cargo.The roll-on/roll-off ship is one of the most successful types operating today. Its flexibility, ability to integrate with other transport systems and speed of operation have made it extremely popular on many shipping routes. According to ShipPax, in 2004, more than 1.3 billion pasengers, 188 million cars, 856,000 buses and 28.7 million trailers were carried on 5.9 million crossings globally. See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RORO
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SAR - Search and Rescue
Search and Rescue (SAR) comprises the search for, and provision of aid to, persons who are, or who are feared to be, in distress. The International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue 1979 (SAR Convention) provides for international agreement on the provision of SAR services including entering into SAR agreements with neighbouring States, establishment of common (operating) procedures and preparatory measures such as rescue coordination centres/sub-centres.
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Schengen Agreement
Schengen Agreement is used for two international treaties concluded among certain European states in 1985 and 1990 dealing with cross-border legal arrangements and the abolition of systematic border controls among the participating countries. The main purpose of the establishment of the Schengen rules is the abolition of physical borders among European countries.
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Scrubbing (sea water)
Washing emissions with sea-water in order to remove sulphur oxides (SOx). The waste sea-water is further diluted before discharged into the ocean
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Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) will become Emission Control Areas (ECA) to incorporate NOx emissions as well as Sulphur.
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Ship clearence
Ship clearance involves: 1. Clearance for ship to enter national waters, which is normally managed by National maritime authorities. 2. Port Clearance (managed by port authorities) which includes: a.Clearance for ship to berth; normally includes clearance for cargo or passenger to proceed to import/immigration control. b. Clearance for ship to leave berth c. clearance to enter ship reporting areas, port fairways, channels, locks or other restricted traffic areas, which is normally part of traffic management.
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Ship Efficiency
Ship efficiency can be measured by the average ship running cost per km. The design factors influencing ship efficiency are propulsion efficiency, propeller efficiency and hull efficiency measured in operational terms by specific fuel consumption and ship speed. Operational factors affecting ship efficiency include port turnaround times and efficiency of loading, maintenance, crewing, regulations compliance
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Shipboard incinerators
On-board management systems for non-hazardous waste.
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Short Sea Promotions Centres (SPCs):
SPCs promote Short Sea Shipping as part of the intermodal transport chain. They form connections with all major actors in the field of shortsea shipping and are a channel of influence between business and authorities.
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Single Window System
A single window system enables international (cross-border) traders to submit regulatory documents at a single location and/or single entity. Such documents are typically customs declarations, applications for import/export permits, and other supporting documents .
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Removing hydrocarbons from the water surface.
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It is fuel residue in the form of an agglomerate of solid and liquid materials with a tendency to form a deposit.
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Solid waste
All types of various forms of waste, either of human or natural origin, floating at sea or deposited onshore.
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Oxygen compounds of sulphur. The family of sulphur oxides emissions, mainly consisting of SO2, is produced during combustion due to content of sulphur in the fuel.
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SSS Short Sea Shipping
Shortsea shipping means the movement of cargo and passengers by sea between ports situated in geographical Europe or between those ports and ports situated in non-European countries having a coastline on the enclosed seas bordering Europe. Shortsea shipping includes domestic and international maritime transport, including feeder services, along the coast, to and from the islands, rivers and lakes.
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Storm-berm relocation
(As response in poil pollution). The mechanical exposure and relocation of oiled storm berms into the tidal zone to allow natural tidal flushing and to enhance biodegradation
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This is the initial phase of purification of polluted water.It involves eliminating solid waste and large particles.
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Strategic Alliance
A strategic alliance is a formal relationship between a number of organisations to pursue agreed goals or to realise a specified business opportunity whilst the organisations retain their independence. A joint venture, in which firms create a legally independent company, is the most formal type of strategic alliance.
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In general terms, is the ability to maintain balance of a certain process or state in any system. In economics terms, sustainability interfaces with economic processes via social and ecological consequences of any activity. The challenge is to curb and manage economic development without increasing resource use and environmental impact.
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It is a specified, realistic, measurable objective. It is usually described in policy documents such as monetary policy, national macroeconomic policy or EU transport policy papers.
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The Trans-European Transport Network is to be established gradually by integrating land, sea and air transport infrastructure components, and by including the necessary technical installations, information and telecommunication systems to ensure smooth operation of the network and efficient traffic management. The transport infrastructure components are road, rail and inland waterway networks, motorways of the sea, seaports and inland waterway ports, airports and other interconnection points between modal networks.
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Trans European Transport Network to support expansion of SSS services, reducing congestion and environmental impact.
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United Nations Conference on Trade and Development is a permanent intergovernmental body established within the General Assembly of the United Nations responsible for trade, investment, and development issues. UNCTAD’s goals are to maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis. The creation of the conference was based on concerns of developing countries over the international market, multi-national corporations, and great disparity between developed nations and developing nations. UNCTAD also has responsibility in relation to international trade and commodities, globalisation and development, investment and enterprise, technology and logistics. In the context of maritime matters, UNCTAD publishes its “Review of Maritime Transport” published annually since 1968. It reports on the worldwide evolution of shipping, ports and multimodal transport related to the major traffics of liquid bulk, dry bulk and containers.
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UNITE (2003)
Transport accounts and External cost estimates for most western European countries - UNITE had three core objectives: 1) to develop pilot transport accounts for all modes, for the EU15 and additional countries; 2) to provide a comprehensive set of marginal cost estimates relevant to transport contexts around Europe; 3) and deliver a framework for integration of accounts and marginal costs, consistent with public finance economics and the role of transport charging in the European economy.
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United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body. It is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues.
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Vessel Traffic Service (VTS)
A vessel traffic service (VTS) is a marine traffic monitoring system established by harbour or port authorities, similar to air traffic control for aircraft. Typical VTS systems use radar, closed-circuit television (CCTV), VHF radiotelephony and automatic identification system to keep track of vessel movements and provide navigational safety in a limited geographical area.
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Voluntary IMO Member State Audit Scheme
The Audit Scheme is designed to help promote maritime safety and environmental protection by assessing how effectively Member States implement and enforce relevant IMO Convention standards, and by providing them with feedback and advice on their current performance.
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Voyage Data Recorder (VDR)
The purpose of a voyage data recorder (VDR) is to maintain a store, in a secure and retrievable form, of information concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control of a vessel over the period leading up to and following an incident having an impact thereon. Information contained in a VDR should be made available to both the Administration and the shipowner. This information is for use during any subsequent investigation to identify the cause(s) of the incident.
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Voyage Planning
Voyage planning is a procedure to develop a complete description of a vessel's voyage from start to finish. The plan includes leaving the dock and harbor area, the en route portion of a voyage, approaching the destination, and mooring, the industry term for this is 'berth to berth'. According to international law, a vessel's captain is legally responsible for voyage planning which consists of four stages: appraisal, planning, execution, and monitoring. These stages are specified in the IMO Resolution A.893, Guidelines For Voyage Planning.
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